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And they continue to tighten, more numerous than what the (so-called) ‘polls’ suggest, made on purpose to celebrate ideologies and facilitate consumption, not around a ‘degenerate nativity scene’, as the ‘illustrious teachers’ preaching, but to an ancient, shocking, unique ‘event’, differently ‘told’ over time, of course, yet after two millennia (and despite everything) shared and widely current. A breath of faith, cheers, along the wonderful Peninsula.
The cathedral, located in the eastern part of the Île de la Cité, in the heart of the French capital, in the square of the same name, is one of the most famous Gothic buildings in the world and is one of the most visited monuments in Paris.
According to the French law on the separation of state and church of 1905, the building is owned by the French state, like all other cathedrals built by the Kingdom of France, and its use is assigned to the Catholic Church. The cathedral, a minor basilica since February 27, 1805, has been a historical monument of France since 1862 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991.
In the area where the cathedral stands today, there was a pagan temple dedicated to Jupiter, the result of the reconstruction of Lutetia by Gaius Julius Caesar after the surrender of Vercingetorix in 52 BC. An older cathedral, initially dedicated to St. Stephen preceded the current building. It was a basilica with five naves separated by marble columns and rose further west than today’s cathedral; annexed there was a baptistery dedicated to St. John the Baptist, with the name of Saint-Jean-le-Rond, definitively demolished in the eighteenth century. The Cathedral of Santo Stefano was flanked (double church) and then replaced by another dedicated to the Virgin Mary. (Wikipedia)
Even before his death he divided the empire between his three sons Lothair, Pepin and Ludwig II the German, but the already fragile balance was broken with the entry on the scene of the son of his subsequent marriage, Charles the Bald, who gave rise to a civil war that aggravated the instability of central power, even if it alternated with periods of peace due to the lack of interest of the aristocracy to participate in it.
In 843, with the Treaty of Verdun, Lothair had to come to terms: he kept the imperial crown, but limited himself to governing the central strip of territory between the North Sea, the Rhone basin, the Rhine, the Alps and Italy, with the cities of Aachen and Rome. Charles the Bald took ‘western’ France (today’s France without the belt closest to today’s Germany and Provence) and Louis the German ‘eastern’ France, corresponding to today’s portion of Germany between the Rhine and the Elbe, up to Bavaria and Carinthia included.
With the death of Lothair, Ludovico took the imperial crown, then in 875 he was succeeded by Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, who saw in him a possible ally against the prince of Spoleto and the Muslims, who had settled at the mouth of the Garigliano.
Charles the Bald died in 877 with the Carolingian empire now in dissolution. He was succeeded by Charles the Fat, son of Ludovico il Germanico, also crowned by John VIII, always in search of protection; but the emperor was unable to prevent the assassination of the pope in 882, during one of the frequent civil wars fought in Rome by the local aristocracy.
The threat of external incursions, Normans and Muslims on the front line, had put Charles the Fat in hard difficulty, so much so that the Normans besieged Paris itself. In this situation he was forced to abdicate by an aristocracy that now refused to obey him (887). He spent the last months of his life in captivity, with no successor on the throne.
The Carolingian Empire was closely related to the figure of its founder Charlemagne and his Carolingian descent, his conquests and the special relationship it had established with the papacy. Even the Roman-Germanic Empire (the Holy Roman Empire, later of the German nation) had sprouted from the Carolingian one, but since the western part of the kingdom of France was missing, for some it could not be heir French crown. The canonical date of its foundation is 962, by Otto I.
The imperial title, however, was transmitted by the Carolingians to subsequent sovereigns and therefore has an undeniable continuity. For this reason, the calculation of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire usually goes back to Charlemagne.0 Comments